Risk factors and the principle of treatment of inguinal hernia in women

Inguinal hernia refers to surgical diseases, and already at the first symptoms of it, you need to consult a doctor to start preparing for surgery. The disease is the exit of the abdominal organs into the inguinal canal, which externally manifests itself in the form of swelling. Symptoms of inguinal hernia in women occur already at the initial stage of the disease, but pain may be absent for a long time.

signs of inguinal hernia

In little girls, girls and women, a hernia in the groin is diagnosed extremely rarely, it happens mainly before the age of one and after 40 years.

The violation is associated with the anatomical features of the inguinal canal, which in men is much wider, which will already be a predisposing factor. In women, there are only direct inguinal hernias, because the spermatic cord is absent, and it weakens the walls of the inguinal canal from the inside.

But there are many factors in the appearance of this disease that do not depend on the characteristics of the organism. The disease can occur in anyone, and surgeons often have to treat inguinal hernia in women and young girls.

How does an inguinal hernia manifest in women

In women with an inguinal hernia, part or all of the organ came out into the groin area. The process often involves a loop of the large intestine, but it can also be organs such as the ureter, omentum, ovary, bladder, fallopian tubes. Very rarely there is a protrusion of the spleen, which threatens to rupture it.

Any inguinal hernia in women gives symptoms of pain and dysfunction of the organs of the genitourinary system. Only the period of onset of symptoms and associated disorders differ.

hernia symptoms in women

The main signs of a hernia in the groin in women will be:

  • pain that increases during menstruation;
  • discomfort, pain in the lower abdomen and in the lumbar region;
  • urinary and stool retention;
  • frequent constipation, when part of the intestine is in the hernial sac;
  • cutting pains during urination and after sleep;
  • nausea, general malaise, dizziness.

Symptoms quickly increase and are supplemented by a feverish state, when the contents of the hernial sac are infringed. There is a risk of other serious conditions, all of which are dangerous to health and life.

Symptoms of different forms of the disease

Inguinal hernia in women is classified according to the following criteria:

  1. Direct - an acquired form of the disease, the defect arises from the inguinal fossa.
  2. Combined - has several hernial sacs, which consist of different organs, refers to complex forms of the disease, often complicated.
  3. Sliding - differs in that the wall of the hernial sac is formed by a separate organ, which can move freely, "slide".
  4. Recurrent - repeated hernia, appears after surgery as a result of surgeon errors or due to non-compliance with the load regimen after surgery.

In order to understand how to treat a defect in a particular case, the doctor collects an anamnesis, takes into account all the symptoms and selects the treatment only after ultrasound and additional studies, if necessary.

Causes of the disease and predisposing factors

Hernia in women occurs for the following reasons:

  • congenital anomalies of the inguinal canal;
  • transferred severe childbirth;
  • period of pregnancy;
  • chronic diseases of the respiratory system with persistent cough;
  • increased intra-abdominal pressure;
  • overweight, hypodynamia, sedentary work;
  • heavy sports;
  • muscle weakness, which is under high load.

consultation with a gynecologist

Less often, surgeons have to observe how the disease occurs after an injury. In this case, the inguinal hernia in women must first be removed and further treatment is aimed at restoring damaged organs.

In pregnant women, this disease is observed even more often, which is associated with increased pressure and muscle strain.

Properly selected therapy, wearing a bandage and following a diet exclude complications and harm to the unborn child and the woman herself. The operation is performed after childbirth, but there are indications for surgery during the period of gestation.

Investigations for hernia

Diagnosis of inguinal hernias is not difficult. The woman is examined by a surgeon and a gynecologist, who will guide the patient before and after the operation. Outwardly, the doctor sees swelling in the groin area on the one hand, less often there is a bilateral defect.

For a complete picture of the hernia, additional studies are assigned:

  • Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis - the hernial sac and surrounding tissues are visible;
  • irrigoscopy - an x-ray using a contrast agent, is performed to examine the gastrointestinal tract, shows the intestine in the hernial sac;
  • herniography - is assigned to visualize the contents of the hernial sac.

ultrasound of the abdominal cavity

Differential diagnosis is carried out with a cyst of the uterine ligament and femoral hernia. These diseases have similar symptoms, and an accurate diagnosis can only be made by imaging the pelvic organs. In the case of a cyst, it will not retract when lying down and disappear on its own, as it does with an inguinal hernia.

Possible complications without treatment

Women, like men, need to be treated for an inguinal hernia from the moment the first symptom appears. Organs enter the hernial sac, damage to which affects the functioning of the whole organism. In women, the fallopian tubes, ovaries can descend, which, if they are infringed and die, will end in infertility. When it enters the inguinal canal of the intestine, there is a delay in feces, which threatens with intestinal obstruction.

pain in the lower abdomen

What is dangerous hernia in the groin in women:

  • failure of the pelvic organs and the gastrointestinal tract - difficult urination, urinary incontinence, constant pain, constipation, intestinal obstruction;
  • irreducibility - the contents of the hernial sac cease to return to its anatomical place, stagnant processes begin, blood circulation is disturbed, there is a risk of tissue ischemia and necrosis;
  • infringement - occurs more often due to irreducibility, the condition develops quickly, is manifested by severe pain, tissue necrosis begins, an urgent operation is needed;
  • coprostasis - when part of the intestine is in the hernial sac, the movement of feces is difficult, frequent constipation is observed, the condition increases the risk of infringement;
  • inflammation - infection of the contents of the hernial sac with an inflammatory process is a very painful and dangerous complication, outwardly visible reddened skin, swelling of tissues, local and general fever.

Ways to remove an inguinal hernia

The operation for a hernia is performed by the method of tension and non-tension hernioplasty. Hernia repair according to Liechtenstein is more often shown, when the hernial orifice is strengthened with a mesh implant. Tension plasty is now rarely practiced, after which the risk of recurrence and the development of a postoperative hernia is higher.

During the operation, a mesh implant is used, which will be a kind of frame that prevents the exit of the abdominal organs into the groin canal. This approach to treatment is considered the gold standard, it is used for hernia at any age, regardless of gender.

Conservative treatments

The operation has contraindications and requires lengthy preparation. While all adverse factors that interfere with the removal of a hernia are eliminated, it is important to maintain the disease at one stage. To improve well-being and prevent complications, medications are used, an inguinal bandage and diet are required.

The following measures will help reduce the symptoms of a hernia in women:

  1. Bandage.

Before and after the operation, the bandage performs several functions:

  • holds the hernia, preventing the prolapse of organs;
  • prevents accidental impact and injury;
  • reduces pain, reducing squeezing of organs;
  • prevents irreducibility and infringement.

The support bandage for women has soft inserts on one or both sides that prevent chafing of the skin. It is comfortable to wear under clothes, it is invisible to others and does not interfere with your usual activities.

  1. Medications.

Pain medications can be taken for a painful hernia. Antispasmodics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are well suited for this. Tablets should be taken only during a period of severe pain, but when a complication is excluded. These can be drugs No-Shpa, Ketanov, Nise, Ibuprofen, Drotaverine.

hernia pain medications

  1. Folk remedies.

Traditional medicine recipes are suitable for everyone, but using them to treat the hernia itself is completely ineffective. They are suitable in case of irritation and inflammation of the skin in the groin area, as well as for general strengthening of the body, which will help to better endure drug therapy and surgery.

For inguinal hernia, ointment from pork fat, a compress from cabbage leaves, infusions of gooseberries, cornflowers, and clover are used.

  1. Diet.

The higher the intra-abdominal pressure, the brighter the symptoms of a hernia in a woman will be. And overeating provokes such a state. To reduce pain and improve well-being, it is recommended to exclude heavy foods that contribute to the accumulation of gases.

Rehabilitation after surgery

After removing the hernia, treatment is just beginning, because you need to restore strength and eliminate the factor that provoked the disease. When there is weakness of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall, after early rehabilitation, you can do gymnastics, sign up for a gym, consult with a trainer about the optimal load to achieve the desired result.

Training according to an individual program gives an amazing result, which will not only transform the appearance, but also will not give a chance for the re-development of a hernia.

ball exercises

When using local anesthesia, recovery is faster, within a few hours after the operation, you can go home, follow all the recommendations and visit a doctor for dressings and examination. After general anesthesia, discharge from the hospital is carried out the next day or a few days later, depending on the complexity of the operation.

The first two weeks, any physical activity is excluded. It is necessary to wear an inguinal bandage, follow a sparing diet, and not overwork mentally and physically. You need to gradually return to the usual rhythm of life.

General rules during the rehabilitation period after hernia repair:

  • dressings are done every day;
  • rest mode is observed;
  • overeating is excluded;
  • the bandage is removed for several hours before going to bed;
  • physical activity is limited to walking.

From the second week after the operation, you can start doing light exercises in the supine and standing position. First, it will be breathing exercises, then exercises, and when the body recovers, you can already do exercises on the muscles of the abdomen, legs, and back.

Contraindications for inguinal hernia

What can not be done to women with inguinal hernia:

  • apply a heating pad to the hernia, rub the affected area, massage the abdomen;
  • try to set the hernia by applying force;
  • continue to engage in hard physical work;
  • expose yourself to the risk of accidental injury.

Hernia in a child

In newborns and girls up to a year old, with a hernia, attempts are made to reduce, but this does not give any guarantee of recovery, therefore, in 99% of cases, an operation is performed. It is impossible to influence the congenital factors of the onset of the disease. Signs of a hernia appear in a girl immediately after birth or within a few months.

Small child

Starting from the 5th month of intrauterine development, the testicles in boys and the uterus in girls begin to descend to the groin from the abdominal cavity. During this period, a defect or a predisposition to it may occur, when the process along which the uterus descends does not completely overgrow and remains wide. Through it, the intestines or other organs of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis will exit.

A sign of the disease in a child will be a similar swelling in the groin area, which periodically disappears and reappears. The girl is assigned a bandage, and preparations for surgical treatment begin. The operation is best done as early as possible, then the risk of complications decreases with age.

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